In the markets of the post-Soviet space and the socialist camp, the most common problems of the oil and gas industry are:
Emergency equipment failure
Risk of emergency situations
Threats and risks associated with emergency equipment failure or emergency situations depend on the features of the construction of the oil and gas complex. In this case, a comprehensive examination helps to prevent problems and minimize costs.
The algorithms of theft and sale of counterfeit products are the same in most cases, although they may have local features. Knowledge of fraud schemes allows staying one step ahead of the game and preventing such situation.
Schemes of deception of the owner
SCHEME 1. Unaccounted-for oil and gas
According to the documents of the filling station, part of the fuel is not in the books, and therefore the profit from its sale is distributed among the scheme participants: the hired manager and the owner of the counterfeit goods.
Schemes of deception. Unaccounted-for oil and gas
A simple and therefore widespread scheme of theft is as follows. The hired manager — the manager of the filling station — sells unaccounted for oil and gas at the filling station entrusted to him.
It happens this way. The document circulation of the filling station, managed by the hired manager, shows some average daily fuel traffic, according to which the frequency of its delivery is determined. In fact, the volume of daily sales is much higher. The deficit, artificially created by the manager, is covered at the expense of the fuel, which came from third party.
In case of absence of control and measurement equipment in the tanks of filling stations and / or automated control by the regional office, this fuel is sold in the same way as the one purchased by the trader. Moreover, the owner pays the operating costs, and the profit goes to the organizers of the scheme.
SCHEME 2.Counterfeit fuel
Losses of the owner from the sale of counterfeit fuel are not direct, but serious, because repair of damaged reputation is a long and expensive process.
Schemes of deception. Counterfeit fuel
Presence of a large amount of counterfeit fuel is a serious problem of a number of countries. This fuel is of poor quality, obtained, as a rule, not in plant conditions from low-octane petrol with a help of additives. It is quickly stratified, which leads to an increased and inefficient flow in the internal combustion engine.
The scheme is that the quality fuel purchased by the trader is substituted for counterfeit one on the way from the petroleum storage to the filling station. The stolen fuel is sold at the "nameless" filling station to a narrow circle of informed clients. And the counterfeit fuel is sold on the branded filling station of the trader. The difference in price between the purchase of "bootleg gasoline" and the sale of branded fuel lays in the pocket of the swindler, and the trader gets complaints and ruined reputation.
Schemes of deception of the management
SCHEME 1.Measurement by measuring stick
The archaic method of measurement by measuring stick is very promising for the emergence of "surplus", since the accuracy of measurements directly depends on the actions of a person.
Until May 2008, oil and oil products metering at the enterprises of the oil and gas industry of Ukraine was carried out in accordance with the document "Instruction on the order of receipt, storage, sale and metering of oil and oil products at petroleum storages and filling stations of the Goskomnefteproduct system of the USSR" No. 06/21-8-446 of 15.08.1985.
So, according to this instruction, the measurement of oil products arriving at the filling station should be carried out only by a mechanic measuring stick. It is immersed in a measured container for 1 minute approximately, then it is extracted and the oil level is checked. In this case, the determining parameter of the metering is the height of the surface of the fuel in the tank of the gasoline truck at the time of arrival. The fuel level should be at the height of the bar, screwed to the inner surface of the tank.
The situation is complicated by the fact that not all the volume of the tank is taken up by fuel. At the bottom of the oil tank the accumulated water is gathered. Its level is determined by the same bar. It happens this way. The operator rubs the measuring stick with water indicator paste and dips it into the tank. Indicator paste on contact with water is painted in crimson color. It is assumed that the level of color of the measuring stick is equal to the level of the accumulated water in the tank. Further it is even easier: according to the calibration charts, approved by the same GOST, the amount of accumulated water is determined.
It is clear that the accuracy of measuring the liquid level by the bar is far from mathematical: the error at every step of the measurements accumulates and at large volumes leads to the appearance of great "surplus".
SCHEME 2.Natural loss
If the control over the write-off of fuel by the top management of the oil and gas complex is not sufficient, the personnel of the filling station withdraw it for their own benefit.
The current version of the "Instruction on the order of receipt, transportation, storage, sale and metering of oil and oil products at enterprises and organizations of Ukraine" was approved on May 20, 2008 (No. 281/171/578/155). And since it was developed on the basis of the previous one, the rate of natural loss of oil products, which up to this day has been 0.8% of the oil flow volume (fuel traffic), migrated to it.
Thus, this "Instruction" assumes that during the delivery of 1 ton of fuel from the petroleum storage to the tank of the car, 8 kg of fuel evaporates in the ordinary sense of the word.
The introduction of modern methods of oil products metering showed that at average annual temperature fluctuations typical for the continental area in moderate climate zone (it ranges from -30°С to +40°С), in winter there is an accumulation of fuel surplus in the amount of + 1.2%, and in summer — in the amount of + 0.15%. But, in fact, "natural loss" is impossible!
The backgrounds for such accumulation are laid in the methodology of oil products metering. It is accepted to meter the fuel stored at petroleum storages in kilograms, and in the tanks of the filling station — in liters. Liquids are known to be subject to expansion and contraction under the influence of external factors. It means that with an unchanged mass, the volume of fuel varies depending on the ambient temperature.
The metering system is built in such a way that in cold season the number of liters sold per 1 ton of fuel is greater, with regard to "normal conditions". In hot season, when the number of liters with respect to "normal conditions" decreases, the same "Instruction" allows you to balance the situation.
So, according to it, each filling station dispenser unit is calibrated with an admissible error rate of ± 0.25%. It means that at release of 10 liters of fuel, the dispenser unit adjusted according to GOST can not add 25 milliliters, which corresponds to a parameter of -0.25%. The error is small. But it allows covering the natural loss of oil products in summer.
All this leads to an average annual accumulation of fuel "surplus" in countries with a moderate climate in the amount of 0.5% of oil flow volume.
If the control over the write-off of fuel "surplus" by the top management of the oil and gas complex is not sufficient, the personnel of the filling station withdraw for their own benefit about 1.3% of the filling station fuel traffic.